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Anti-Ageing Treatment with Stem Cells

17 February 2020

Introduction
Current Approaches to Anti-Ageing Treatments
How to Look Younger
How to Feel Younger
What Are Mesenchymal Stem Cells and What is Their Application in Anti-Ageing Treatment
The Results for Swiss Medica Patients
Treatment Procedures
How Long Does the Treatment’s Effect Last?
List of References

Introduction

Ageing is a complex process, which worsens and slows down metabolic and regenerative functions in the body. It results in both visible and internal signs, plus symptoms such as skin dryness and the loss of its elasticity, accumulation of fats, immune system decline, wearing-away of joints, an increased level of inflammation and others. The process is accompanied by, and triggers, various age-induced diseases.

The ageing process is associated with a decline in the number of stem cells, which are the source of regenerative potential for damaged tissue or worn-out cells [1]. An approach based on replenishing stem cells in the body can slow down ageing, improve health and may increase life expectancy.

Ageing is a complex natural process, and one of its key aspects is the gradual loss of the body's stem cells, which are the source of regenerative potential for damaged tissue or worn-out cells.  

Figure 1. Ageing is a complex natural process, and one of its key aspects is the gradual loss of the body's stem cells, which are the source of regenerative potential for damaged tissue or worn-out cells.  

Current Approaches to Anti-Ageing Treatments

Humankind’s life expectancy has increased, and considerable progress in the extension of life has been made in the last 50 to 70 years. However, at the same time, the desire to look young has reached an unprecedented level. Medical science and cosmetology constantly improve their armoury of anti-ageing care, focusing on two different but complementary approaches – to provide a healthy answer to ageing and prolong visual youth.

How to Look Younger

At any age, the beauty and appeal of a person are determined by healthy skin and hair. Cosmetology offers various approaches to achieve this goal. However, most of them provide only short-term effects which might not always be visible, and also, can have undesirable results. 

The difference between the skin of a young and older person. The destruction of collagen and elastin fibres, plus the lack of hyaluronic acid (which binds water) are the key characteristics of aged skin, and the reason for wrinkle formation, dryness, lack of turgor and elasticity.

Figure 2. The difference between the skin of a young and older person. The destruction of collagen and elastin fibres, plus the lack of hyaluronic acid (which binds water) are the key characteristics of aged skin, and the reason for wrinkle formation, dryness, lack of turgor and elasticity.

  1. Laser skin resurfacing

Depending on the type of laser, this allows the removal of scars, warts and deep wrinkles, plus the treatment of rosacea, spider veins, age spots and acne. The laser stimulates collagen synthesis in the deep layers of the skin.

A dermatologist or physician should explain the benefits and the possible side effects of the specific laser. The most common complications are:

  1. Wrinkle Injections

The injection of approved fillers that give volume to the skin and smooth it may also stimulate natural collagen synthesis. Though the safety data for this product is mostly positive, they are known for the increased risk of allergic reactions, granulomas and bumps under the skin.

  1. Antioxidants

These molecules neutralise free radicals that are generated during exposure to the sun and pollution and affect the structure of the skin and its protective function. The human body has an antioxidant system, but its ability to protect against free radicals wears off over time. Antioxidants are promoted as an ingredient in skincare products and dietary supplements. However, studies have failed to demonstrate the benefits of antioxidants [2].

  1. Peptides

Peptides are small molecules with the same structure as proteins. They consist of a chain of amino acids, which determine their function. Recently, several peptides that stimulate collagen production, promote skin regeneration and reduce wrinkle formation were found and became the main ingredients of anti-ageing cosmetology procedures and skincare products. Despite their efficacy in model studies, they have rather low ability to penetrate skin [3] and are destroyed by enzymes.

  1. Vitamin A

A study of approximately 40 elderly participants revealed that the topical application of retinol lotion improves the appearance of skin and smooths out fine wrinkles [4]. The effect was caused by an increase in collagen production and the impact of glycosaminoglycan, which is known to retain a substantial level of water. Some retinoids – the modification of vitamin A – were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of photo-damaged skin and acne [5, 6]. However, the use of retinol-containing products may cause so-called ‘retinoid reaction’. The side effects include pruritus (itching), burning sensation, erythema (redness) and desquamation (skin peeling).

  1. Anti-ageing Sunscreens

UV radiation plays one of the key roles in skin ageing, termed photoageing. UVA rays are responsible for the degradation of elastin and collagen, and therefore decrease the rigidity and elasticity of the skin. Exposure to UVA rays lead to the wrinkling of the skin. UVB rays account for most of the harmful effects of solar exposure. Sunscreens are chemical agents that act as a shield from harmful UV rays. They help prevent premature ageing and decrease the risk of skin cancer. Researchers are focused on the creation of natural sunscreens, including those which utilise photosynthetic microorganisms (for example, cyanobacteria). They are also investigating anti-ageing creams that contain sun protection ingredients. Sunscreens should be carefully selected, as they may contain ingredients which cause hormonal changes and photoallergy (e.g. oxybenzone). They can also cause local and systemic toxic reactions (nanoparticles), photocarcinogenesis (p-aminobenzoic acid – PABA), as well as oedema, erythema and irritation (e.g. preservatives, fragrances, and other excipients) [7].

How to Feel Younger

  1. Nutrition

Calorie and dietary restrictions, which have been shown to prolong lifespan in animal and cell models (mice, yeasts) did not show convincing results in primates, perhaps due to differences in dietary nutrient composition [8]. Some studies have supported the anti-ageing effect of a traditional Mediterranean diet. They have shown that products, such as dark chocolate, red wine, nuts, beans and avocados may be referred to as anti-ageing foods, due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [9].

  1. Regular physical activity

Moderate but regular physical activity helps to manage age-related changes in all body systems (musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, digestive, urogenital system and others). It can also improve mental health (memory and thinking) [10, 11, 12, 13].

Regular moderate physical activity helps you stay healthy at any age.

Figure 3. Regular moderate physical activity helps you stay healthy at any age.

  1. Blood rejuvenation

Recently this approach for tissue rejuvenation, which transfers blood from young donors (parabiosis), was proposed based on animal studies. In 2008, scientists at Stanford reported that parabiosis between young and old mice restored muscle and liver cells in the aged mice. Later growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF-11) was identified as the element responsible for the rejuvenating effects in muscles, blood vessels and neurons of the brain. The same factors were found in human blood, but, so far, there are no convincing results: transfusions from younger donors do not show a favourable outcome on the survival rate of older patients [14, 15].

What Are Mesenchymal Stem Cells, and What is Their Application in Anti-Ageing Treatment

Regenerative medicine offers a modern approach, to turn back the clock of ageing by 10-15 years, in terms of health and appearance. For this, cellular products are used, and the multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most promising and popular.

MSCs are stem cells which are present in many tissues and organs of the adult body and can be easily obtained for clinical purposes. They can differentiate into a variety of cell types:

These cells can migrate to areas of acute and chronic inflammation and injury sites and are responsible for producing biologically active chemical factors (including cytokines, growth factors and microRNA). All the above-listed functions determine the critical role of MSCs in tissue healing and regeneration [17, 18, 19]. The advantageous features of MSCs may be used for ageing prevention and reverse age-related changes, both visible and internal.

Mesenchymal stem cells (here – bone marrow-derived) can migrate to the injured tissue, stimulated by various mechanical and chemical factors. At the site of damaged tissue, MSCs perform wound healing through two key roles: the paracrine mechanism (mostly) and/or direct differentiation.

Figure 4. Mesenchymal stem cells (here – bone marrow-derived) can migrate to the injured tissue, stimulated by various mechanical and chemical factors. At the site of damaged tissue, MSCs perform wound healing through two key roles: the paracrine mechanism (mostly) and/or direct differentiation [17].

Cumulative chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are two main elements associated with most age-related chronic disease states and in the normal ageing process [20]. Systemically and locally introduced MSCs modulate inflammation and manage oxidative stress, with this being widely observed. 

With regards to biochemical processes in the skin, the potential of MSCs cannot be overestimated. It is known that collagen production decreases in both chronological ageing and photoageing [21]. Collagen is the main protein of the connective tissue and responsible for turgor, firmness and elasticity of the skin. The blood supply to the skin also reduces with age [22, 23], so the skin lacks nutrition, gas exchange decreases, free radicals accumulate and impact cell regeneration.

MSCs have been shown to stimulate the growth of the capillary network [24, 25, 26] and produce collagen and elastin [27, 16, 28]. As a result, they exhibit the potential to restore blood supply and gas exchange, increasing the regenerative potential of the skin, plus other tissues and organs of the body which decline with age.

Aged tissues have a limited stem cell reservoir, a decreased population and low renewal efficiency [29]. By being introduced to the body, MSCs can replenish the supply of stem cells and the above-listed properties contribute to external and internal improvements, such as:

Therefore, the complex effects of stem cell therapy lay both at a deep level and on the body’s surface.


Contact a Medical Advisor to learn what results you can expect from anti-ageing stem cell therapy >>>

The Results for Swiss Medica Patients

Patient: Adriana, 55 years-old, Italy

“Before stem cell therapy, my mental and physical slowdown was a big hurdle. At the age of 50, I started to feel my knee and ankle joints wearing out, my memory slowing down and there was a lack of energy. I also suffered from disorders of the digestive process, and my skin was becoming dry and loose. By 3 p.m., I could hardly make my brain work, but now, my creative juices are flowing all the time.”

Complaints:

Results after stem cell-based therapy:

Treatment Procedures

The most frequently used source for cell products is bone marrow, adipose tissue, skin and gingiva (gums). Cells are obtained under local anaesthesia. In some cases, donor cells from a placenta or umbilical cord may be used, instead of or together with the patient’s cells.

Before administration to the patient’s body, the collected cells are processed (extracted from tissue fragments and then multiplied to reach a therapeutic dose – tens or hundreds of millions of cells). Donor cells are ready for use instantly.

As part of the therapy, the cell product is administered to the body. There are two main routes of administration:

Both routes may be utilised to ensure the most beneficial results for the patient.

All treatment procedures are performed in compliance with international quality standards (GTP – good tissue practice, GLP – good laboratory practice), to ensure all aspects are safe for the patients and cell product.

How Long Does the Treatment’s Effect Last?

Depending on the initial physical condition of the person treated with stem cells, concomitant diseases, lifestyle and the selected treatment programme, the effect of the therapy may last from six months to several years. Improvements may be observed in one to two weeks, with a further positive trend. A more precise forecast may be compiled based on a comprehensive examination.


Contact a Medical Advisor to receive a customised stem-cell based anti-ageing programme >>>

— Published on February 17, 2020

by Swiss Medica team

List of References

  1. Anthony D. Ho AD, Wagner W and Mahlknecht U. Stem cells and ageing. EMBO Rep. 2005 Jul; 6(Suppl 1): S35–S38.
  2. Bjelakovic G et al. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16;(2): CD007176.
  3. Lim SH et al. Enhanced Skin Permeation of Anti-wrinkle Peptides via Molecular Modification. Sci Rep. 2018; 8: 1596.
  4. Kafi R et al. Improvement of naturally aged skin with vitamin A (retinol). Arch Dermatol. 2007 May; 143(5): 606-12.
  5. Buchanan PJ and Gilman RH. Retinoids: Literature Review and Suggested Algorithm for Use Prior to Facial Resurfacing Procedures. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2016 Jul-Sep; 9(3): 139-144.
  6. Zasada M and Budzisz E. Randomized parallel control trial checking the efficacy and impact of two concentrations of retinol in the original formula on the aging skin condition: Pilot study. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020 Feb;19(2): 437-443.
  7. Shanbhag S et al. Anti-aging and Sunscreens: Paradigm Shift in Cosmetics. Adv Pharm Bull. 2019 Aug; 9(3): 348–359.
  8. Lee D et al. Effects of nutritional components on aging. Aging Cell. 2015 Feb; 14(1): 8–16.
  9. Martinez-Gonzalez MA and Martín-Calvo N. Mediterranean diet and life expectancy; beyond olive oil, fruits and vegetables. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2016 Nov; 19(6): 401–407.
  10. Rebelo-Marques A et al. Aging Hallmarks: The Benefits of Physical Exercise. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018; 9: 258.
  11. Garatachea N et al. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging. Rejuvenation Res. 2015 Feb 1; 18(1): 57–89.
  12. Werner CM et al. Differential effects of endurance, interval, and resistance training on telomerase activity and telomere length in a randomized, controlled study. Eur Heart J. 2019 Jan 1; 40(1): 34-46.
  13. Lautenschlager NT et al. Can physical activity improve the mental health of older adults? Ann Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2004; 3: 12.
  14. Edgren G et al. Association of Donor Age and Sex With Survival of Patients Receiving Transfusions. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Jun; 177(6): 854–860.
  15. Hofmann B. Young Blood Rejuvenates Old Bodies: A Call for Reflection when Moving from Mice to Men. Transfus Med Hemother. 2018 Jan; 45(1): 67–71.
  16. Su Y et al. Extracellular matrix protein production in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on three-dimensional polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds responds to GDF5 or FGF2. Gene Rep. 2018 Mar; 10: 149–156.
  17. Fu X et al. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration and Tissue Repair. Cells 2019, 8(8), 784.
  18. Natesan Sh, et al. Chapter 8 — Mesenchymal Stem Cell–Based Therapies for Repair and Regeneration of Skin Wounds, in A Roadmap to Non-Hematopoietic Stem Cell-based Therapeutics. From the Bench to the Clinic. 2019, Pages 173-222.
  19. Yu Y. Application of Stem Cell Technology in Antiaging and Aging-Related Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018; 1086: 255-265.
  20. Petersen KS and Smith C. Ageing-Associated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Are Alleviated by Products from Grapes. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016: 6236309.
  21. Varani J et al. Decreased Collagen Production in Chronologically Aged Skin. Roles of Age-Dependent Alteration in Fibroblast Function and Defective Mechanical Stimulation. Am J Pathol. 2006 Jun; 168(6): 1861–1868.
  22. Bentov I, Reed MJ. The Effect of Aging on the Cutaneous Microvasculature. Microvasc Res. 2015 Jul; 100: 25–31.
  23. Xu X et al. Age-related Impairment of Vascular Structure and Functions. Aging Dis. 2017 Oct; 8(5): 590–610.
  24. Yang, W.K.; Heo, S.C.; Jeong, G.O.; Yoon, J.W.; Mo, W.M.; Mi, J.L.; Jang, I.H.; Sang, M.K.; Lee, J.S.; Kim, J.H. Tumor necrosis factor-α-activated mesenchymal stem cells promote endothelial progenitor cell homing and angiogenesis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2013, 1832, 2136–2144.
  25. Li, M.; Luan, F.; Zhao, Y.; Hao, H.; Liu, J.; Dong, L.; Fu, X.; Han, W. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates wound healing with fewer scars. Int. Wound J. 2017, 14, 64–73.
  26. Ghajar CM et al. Mesenchymal cells stimulate capillary morphogenesis via distinct proteolytic mechanisms. Exp Cell Res. 2010 Mar; 10; 316(5): 813-25.
  27. Jeon YK et al. Mesenchymal stem cells' interaction with skin: wound-healing effect on fibroblast cells and skin tissue. Wound Repair Regen. 2010 Nov-Dec; 18(6): 655-61.
  28. Liu X et al. Exosomes secreted by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate type I collagen metabolism in fibroblasts from women with stress urinary incontinence. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2018 Jun; 13;9(1): 159.
  29. Ullah M and Sun Z, Stem cells and anti-aging genes: double-edged sword—do the same job of life extension. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2018; 9: 3.

Patient's results of treatment
at Swiss Medica

Parkinson's disease
Autism
Lyme disease
Dementia
Multiple Sclerosis
Osteoarthritis
Diabetes type 2
Alzheimer
Kidney Disease

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About Swiss Medica clinic

Our primary task is to make your own cells treat your own body. We use advanced technology to activate mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue, bone marrow, etc. Donated cells can also be used. Introduced to the patient’s body, these cells help to regenerate damaged tissue. Symptoms become less obvious and/or disappear.

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